PRODUCT AND MODEL
Silver/Silver Chloride Reference Electrode for Electrochemical Measurements at High Temperatures, CALTRODE® +400 Ag/AgCl
CALTRODE® +400 Ag/AgCl, silver/silver chloride reference electrode for electrochemical measurements such as corrosion potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarizations, potentiostatic polarizations, galvanostatic polarizations, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), etc.
CALTRODE™ +400 Reference Electrode is made from opaque fused quartz able to withstand temperatures of +400°C.
FUNCTIONS AND CAPABILITIES
This reference electrode is suitable for electrochemical measurements (such as corrosion potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarizations, potentiostatic polarizations, galvanostatic polarizations, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), etc.) in a temperature range of 20°C to 400°C. In this temperature range (20°C to 400°C), the reference electrode can be directly immersed in the test electrolyte providing that the test electrolyte has an ionic conductivity sufficient to conduct the electrochemical measurements.
This reference electrode can also do electrochemical measurements at temperatures lower than 20°C, (20°C to -10°C), providing that: 1) the reference electrode is immersed in saturated aqueous solution of potassium chloride (KCl) and connected to the test electrolyte through a salt bridge (a half-cell for the reference electrode)
2) the test electrolyte has an ionic conductivity sufficient to conduct the electrochemical measurements.
It is recommended that the electrode position in the testing medium is between 45 and 90 degrees vs horizontal during testing. For reliable testing, it is required that the electrode tip (~2 cm) is completely immersed in the test electrolyte. The minimum recommended length of the electrode in the test electrolyte is about 5 cm including the electrode tip. It is also recommended that the electrode to be immersed in the test electrolyte for about 45 minutes before starting the testing for establishing the electrochemical connection between the electrode and the sample under test. This can be verified by monitoring the open circuit potential of the metal sample under testing. This 45-minute time is just a guidance and not always a fixed time. This means that the electrochemical connection between the electrode and the sample under test can be established at a shorter or longer time depending on the nature of the test electrolyte and test conditions. The most important point is to verify the connection of the electrode before starting the measurements.
The most important part of this electrode is its tip. It can be easily broken if mishandled. Consequently, utmost care should be taken when handling this electrode to avoid hitting any solid surfaces.
SAFETY GUIDELINES AND PRECAUTIONS
Avoid Thermal Shocks
On testing at high temperatures, the electrode should be immersed in the testing electrolyte at lower temperatures then the temperature can be raised gradually.
Sudden immersion from room temperature to high temperature will result in thermal shock for the electrode body and it will break under this condition. For example, if the electrode is to be used for tests at 400°C in a molten salt which melts at 300°C, the electrode should be conditioned at about 150°C for about 30 minutes (outside the molten salt), then can be immersed in that molten salt at 300°C then stays there while the temperature is raised gradually to 400°C. The same care should be taken when taking the electrode out after testing because the electrode will also break under sudden cooling conditions.
It is required not to leave the electrode in the testing electrolyte if that electrolyte freezes at room temperature. If the electrode is left in a molten salt until it freezes, the electrode will break on re-melting the molten salt again.
Do not subject this reference electrode to temperatures higher than 400°C. This will result in melting the internal wire and thus totally destroy the reference electrode.
This electrode doesn’t need to be constantly immersed in any solution for storage purposes after use.
It is required to take the electrode out of the testing medium, lightly clean it with a scientific Lab paper (such as Kimtech Science KimWipes) which is lightly wetted with deionized water to remove all salt residuals from the electrode body.
Keep the electrode in a safe and clean (dust free) area (recommended at a vertical position) at room temperature to be ready for the next use.
If significant noise in the measurement curve is seen during testing, it can be because of one or more of the following:
Bad wiring connections between the electrochemical cell and the measuring instrument (such as a Potentiostat). All wiring connections should be properly verified before staring testing.
The electrode tip is not properly immersed in the test electrolyte.
The electrode tip is broken, if this is the case the test should be started from the beginning with fresh test electrolyte and a new electrode must be used. In this case the electrochemical cell must be cleaned well before using the new materials.
The metal sample under testing is not properly immersed in the test electrolyte.
The goods claimed to be defective shall be returned to CALTRODE for examination in their original or equivalent packaging. CALTRODE shall remedy defects if the warranty claim is valid and within the warranty period. It is at CALTRODE’ discretion whether CALTRODE remedies the defect by repair or replacement. CALTRODE shall only bear the costs necessary to remedy the defect.
CALTRODE shall be entitled to refuse to remedy defects in accordance with CALTRODE’ statutory rights. CALTRODE may refuse to remedy defects if the Customer has not complied with CALTRODE’ request to return the goods claimed to be defective.
CALTRODE shall refuse to remedy the goods if CALTRODE concludes that the goods have not be used with due care or have been mishandled or handled not in compliance with the User Guide and Installation Instruction as provided on the CALTRODE website www.caltrode.solutions .
Specifications of CALTRODE’ goods, especially pictures, drawings, data about weight, measure and capacity contained in offers and brochures are to be considered as average data. Such specifications and data shall in no way constitute a quality warranty but merely a description or labeling of the goods.
Unless limits for variations have expressly been agreed in the order confirmation, such variations shall be admissible that are customary within the trade.
CALTRODE shall not accept any liability for defects in the goods supplied if they are caused by normal wear and tear.
Any warranty shall be void if operating or maintenance instructions are not observed, if changes are made to deliveries or services unless the Customer can show that the defect in question resulted from another cause.
The Customer shall be obliged to notify defects to CALTRODE in writing by email to our Costumer Service at email@example.com providing as much detail of the defect as possible including pictures.
The limitation period for claims for defect shall be 30 days from receipt of the electrode.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS